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Oral and Pharyngeal Dysphagia in Adults.

Patients with oral and pharyngeal dysphagia have difficulty forming a cohesive bolus and/or transferring food from the mouth into the pharynx and esophagus to initiate the involuntary swallowing process. This may be accompanied by nasopharyngeal regurgitation, aspiration, and a sensation of residual food remaining in the pharynx. Abnormalities affecting the upper esophageal sphincter, pharynx, larynx, or tongue, in isolation or combination, result in oropharyngeal dysphagia affecting either or both transit and airway protection. These issues can be addressed with a combination of management of the underlying systemic disease, with surgical intervention or with swallow therapy.

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