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RECIP 1.0 Predicts Progression-Free Survival After [ 177 Lu]Lu-PSMA Radiopharmaceutical Therapy in Patients with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

Response Evaluation Criteria in Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Imaging (RECIP) 1.0 is an evidence-based framework to evaluate therapeutic efficacy in metastatic prostate cancer using prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of interim PSMA PET/CT by RECIP 1.0 with short-term outcome after radiopharmaceutical treatment. Methods: This multicenter retrospective study included patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who underwent [177 Lu]Lu-PSMA radiopharmaceutical therapy at 3 academic centers and received PSMA PET/CT at baseline and at 12 wk. Pairs of PSMA PET/CT images were assessed by 5 readers for visual RECIP 1.0. The primary outcome was the association of RECIP with prostate-specific antigen progression-free survival (PSA-PFS) by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: In total, 124 of 287 screened patients met the inclusion criteria, with 0 (0%), 29 (23%), 54 (44%), and 41 (33%) of those 124 patients having complete response, partial response, stable disease, or progressive disease (PD) by visual RECIP 1.0, respectively. Patients with visual RECIP PD had a significantly shorter PSA-PFS than those with RECIP stable disease or with RECIP partial response (2.6 vs. 6.4 vs. 8.4 mo; P < 0.001). The median PSA-PFS among patients with RECIP PD versus those with non-RECIP PD was 2.6 versus 7.2 mo (hazard ratio, 13.0; 95% CI, 7.0-24.1; P < 0.001). Conclusion: PSMA PET/CT by RECIP 1.0 after 2 cycles of [177 Lu]Lu-PSMA is prognostic for PSA-PFS. PSMA PET/CT by RECIP 1.0 may be used in earlier stages of prostate cancer to evaluate drug efficacy and to predict progression-free survival.

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