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Bone marrow CD8 + Trm cells induced by IL-15 and CD16 + monocytes contribute to HSPC destruction in human severe aplastic anemia.

Idiopathic severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a disease of bone marrow failure caused by T-cell-induced destruction of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), however the mechanism remains unclear. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing of PBMCs and BMMCs from SAA patients and healthy donors and identified a CD8+ T cell subset with a tissue residency phenotype (Trm) in bone marrow that exhibit high IFN-γ and FasL expression and have a higher ability to induce apoptosis in HSPCs in vitro through FasL expression. CD8+ Trm cells were induced by IL-15 presented by IL-15Rα on monocytes, especially CD16+ monocytes, which were increased in SAA patients. CD16+ monocytes contributed to IL-15-induced CD38+ CXCR6+ pre-Trm differentiation into CD8+ Trm cells, which can be inhibited by the CD38 inhibitor 78c. Our results demonstrate that IL-15-induced CD8+ Trm cells are pathogenic cells that mediate HSPC destruction in SAA patients and are therapeutic targets for future treatments.

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