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m6A RNA Methylation and Implications for Hepatic Lipid Metabolism.

DNA and Cell Biology 2024 April 19
This review presents a summary of recent progress in research on the N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification and regulatory roles in hepatic lipid metabolism. As the most abundant internal modification of eukaryotic RNA, the m6A modification is a dynamic and reversible process of the m6A enzyme system, which includes writers, erasers, and readers. m6A methylation depressed lipid synthesis and facilitated lipolysis in liver. The depletion of m6A methyltransferase Mettl14/Mettl3 raised fatty acid synthase (FAS), stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and elongase of very long chain fatty acids 6 (ELOVL6) in rodent liver, causing increases in liver weight, triglyceride (TG) production, and content in hepatocytes. FTO catalyzed m6A demethylation and the suppression m6A reader YTHDC2 promoted hepatocellular TG generation and hepatic steatosis in C57BL/6 mice through sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) signaling pathway, which upregulated the lipogenic genes FAS , SCD1 , ACC , recombinant acetyl coenzyme a carboxylase alpha , and cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-like effector C ( CIDEC ). Furthermore, FTO overexpression did not only enhance mitochondrial fusion to impair mitochondrial function and lipid oxidation but also promoted lipid peroxidation, accompanied by excessive TG in hepatocytes and rodent liver. Elevated m6A modification potently suppressed hepatic lipid accumulation, while the shrinkage of m6A modification arose hepatic lipid deposition. These findings have highlighted the beneficial role of m6A RNA methylation in hepatic lipid metabolism, potentially protecting liver from lipid metabolic disorders.

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