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PA28γ, the ring that makes tumors invisible to the immune system?

Biochimie 2024 April 16
PA28γ is a proteasomal interactor whose main and most known function is to stimulate the hydrolytic activity of the 20S proteasome independently of ubiquitin and ATP. Unlike its two paralogues, PA28α and PA28β, PA28γ is largely present in the nuclear compartment and plays pivotal functions in important pathways such as cellular division, apoptosis, neoplastic transformation, chromatin structure and organization, fertility, lipid metabolism, and DNA repair mechanisms. Although it is known that a substantial fraction of PA28γ is found in the cell in a free form (i.e. not associated with 20S), almost all of the studies so far have focused on its ability to modulate proteasomal enzymatic activities. In this respect, the ability of PA28γ to strongly stimulate degradation of proteins, especially if intrinsically disordered and therefore devoid of three-dimensional tightly folded structure, appears to be the main molecular mechanism underlying its multiple biological effects. Initial studies, conducted more than 20 years ago, came to the conclusion that among the many biological functions of PA28γ, the immunological ones were rather limited and circumscribed. In this review, we focus on recent evidence showing that PA28γ fulfills significant functions in cell-mediated acquired immunity, with a particular role in attenuating MHC class I antigen presentation, especially in relation to neoplastic transformation and autoimmune diseases.

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