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A Japanese multi-institutional phase II study of moderate hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy with image-guided technique for prostate cancer.

BACKGROUND: The aim of this multi-institutional phase II study was to confirm the safety and the potential efficacy of moderately hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with prostate-based image-guidance for Japanese patients.

METHODS: Patients with low- or intermediate-risk localized prostate cancer were eligible. Patients with a part of high risk (having only one of the following factors, cT3a, 20 < PSA ≤ 30, or GS = 8 or 9) were also included. Hypofractionated IMRT using daily image-guided technique with prostate matching was performed with a total dose of 70 Gy in 28 fractions. Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy for 4-8 months was mandatory for patients with intermediate or high-risk prostate cancer.

RESULTS: From 20 institutions, 134 patients enrolled. The median follow-up was 5.16 years (range, 1.43-6.47 years). The number of patients with low, intermediate, and high-risk prostate cancer was 20, 80, and 34, respectively. The 5-year overall, biochemical failure-free, and clinical failure-free survival was 94.5%, 96.0%, and 99.2%, respectively. The 5-year biochemical failure-free survival for patients with low-, intermediate-, and high-risk disease was 94.1%, 97.4%, and 93.9%, respectively. The incidences of grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) late toxicities at 5 years were 5.3% and 5.3%, respectively. There are no acute or late toxicities ≥ grade 3. Of 124 patients who were followed for up to 5 years, the grade 2 late GU or GI toxicities were 10.5% (90% confidence intervals, 6.3-16.2%, p = 0.0958).

CONCLUSION: The safety and efficacy of moderately hypofractionated IMRT with prostate-based image-guidance was confirmed among Japanese patients with prostate cancer.

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