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Pharmacogenetics of aminoglycoside-related ototoxicity: a systematic review.

BACKGROUND: Aminoglycosides (AGs) are important antibiotics in the treatment of Gram-negative sepsis. However, they are associated with the risk of irreversible sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Several genetic variants have been implicated in the development of ototoxicity.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the pharmacogenetic determinants of AG-related ototoxicity.

METHODS: This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses and was registered on Prospero (CRD42022337769). In Dec 2022, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and MEDLINE were searched. Included studies were those reporting original data on the effect of the AG-exposed patient's genome on the development of ototoxicity.

RESULTS: Of 10 202 studies, 31 met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-nine studies focused on the mitochondrial genome, while two studied the nuclear genome. One study of neonates found that 30% of those with the m.1555A > G variant failed hearing screening after AG exposure (level 2 evidence). Seventeen additional studies found the m.1555A > G variant was associated with high penetrance (up to 100%) of SNHL after AG exposure (level 3-4 evidence). Nine studies of m.1494C > T found the penetrance of AG-related SNHL to be up to 40%; however, this variant was also identified in those with SNHL without AG exposure (level 3-4 evidence). The variants m.1005T > C and m.1095T > C may be associated with AG-related SNHL; however, further studies are needed.

CONCLUSIONS: This review found that the m.1555A > G and m.1494C > T variants in the MT-RNR1 gene have the strongest evidence in the development of AG-related SNHL, although study quality was limited (level 2-4). These variants were associated with high penetrance of a SNHL phenotype following AG exposure.

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