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Visual and Pharmacotherapy Outcomes After Transverse Sinus Stenting for Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension.

BACKGROUND: Transverse sinus stenting (TSS) is an increasingly common treatment for patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). However, detailed neuro-ophthalmic evidence on visual and pharmacotherapy outcomes after TSS is scarce and heterogeneous. This study aimed to describe the visual outcomes of patients undergoing TSS for IIH and to ascertain the proportion of patients who could be weaned off intracranial pressure (ICP)-lowering medication postoperatively.

METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all patients with IIH from 2 tertiary academic neuro-ophthalmology practices who underwent TSS between 2016 and 2022 was performed. Indications for stenting included failure of pharmacotherapy, intolerance of pharmacotherapy, and acute vision loss from severe papilledema. Data on demographics, symptoms, visual function, pharmacotherapy, and TSS were collected. The paired Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare changes in visual acuity (VA) and visual field mean deviation (VFMD) between the baseline and most recent visits.

RESULTS: Of the 435 patients with IIH, 15 (13 women) met inclusion criteria. After TSS, ICP-lowering pharmacotherapy was discontinued in 10 patients and decreased in 4; 1 patient was not on ICP-lowering medication before TSS. All patients experienced resolution or improvement of symptoms (10 resolution, 4 improved, 1 asymptomatic before TSS) and papilledema (11 resolution, 4 improved) after stenting. Papilledema resolution was confirmed with optical coherence tomography-measured peripapillary nerve fiber layer thickness (median decrease 147 µm, interquartile range 41.8-242.8 µm, P < 0.001). Change in VA between the baseline and most recent visit was not significant, but VFMD improved significantly after stenting (median increase 3.0, IQR 2.0-4.2, P < 0.001). No patient developed transverse sinus restenosis nor in-stent thrombosis postoperatively across a median venogram follow-up of 20.8 (11.3-49.8) weeks. In addition, no patient required subsequent surgical intervention for IIH.

CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of patients with IIH and fulminant presentation, medication resistance, or medication intolerance, TSS was an effective and safe treatment modality. Most patients were able to stop ICP-lowering medications while demonstrating striking improvement in symptomatology and visual function.

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