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Significance of PSCA as a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target for cancer.

One of the contributing factors in the diagnosis and treatment of most cancers is the identification of their surface antigens. Cancer tissues or cells have their specific antigens. Some antigens that are present in many cancers elicit different functions. One of these antigens is the prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) antigen, which was first identified in the prostate. PSCA is a cell surface protein that has different functions in different tissues. It can play an inhibitory role in cell proliferation as well as a tumor-inducing role. PSCA has several genetic variants involved in cancer susceptibility in some tissues, so identifying the characteristics of this antigen and its relationship with clinical features can provide more information on diagnosis and treatment of patients with cancers. Most studies on the PSCA have focused on prostate cancer. While it is also expressed in other cancers, little attention has been paid to its role as a valuable diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic tool in other cancers. PSCA has several genetic variants that seem to play a significant role in cancer susceptibility in some tissues, so identifying the characteristics of this antigen and its relationship and variants with clinical features can be beneficial in concomitant cancer therapy and diagnosis, as theranostic tools. In this study, we will review the alteration of the PSCA expression and its polymorphisms and evaluate its clinical and theranostics significance in various cancers.

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