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Calcitonin gene-related peptide: a possible biomarker in migraine patients with patent foramen ovale.

BMC Neurology 2024 April 17
BACKGROUND: Serum CGRP has been found to increase during migraine attack. However, whether CGRP can identify MA with PFO subtypes in MA remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the differential expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) between migraine (MA) patients with and without patent foramen ovale (PFO), and to evaluate the predictive value of CGRP for MA with PFO.

METHODS: A total of 153 patients with MA, 51 patients with PFO and 102 patients without. Venous blood was drawn and HIT-6 score was calculated during the onset of MA, and blood routine, inflammatory indexes and serum CGRP were detected. The differences in serum markers and HIT-6 scores were compared between the two groups, and the risk factors of MA with PFO were determined by univariate and multivariate logistics regression. Furthermore, the correlation between CGRP level with right-to-left shunt (RLS) grades and headache impact test-6 (HIT-6) score in MA patients with PFO were assessed. Independent risk factors were screened out by multivariate Logistic regression analysis. We used the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to analyze the diagnostic value of these risk factors in MA complicated with PFO.

RESULTS: The serum CGRP level and HIT-6 scores in the MA with PFO group were significantly higher than those in the MA group (P < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis showed that CGRP was an independent risk factor for MA with PFO (OR = 1.698, 95% CI = 1.325-2.179, P < 0.001). CGRP values ​​increased with the increase of RLS grade(Spearmen rho = 0.703, P < 0.001). Furthermore, a positive correlation between CGRP and HIT-6 scores was found (Spearmen rho = 0.227; P = 0.016). ROC curve showed that the optimal cut-off value for diagnosing MA with PFO was 79 pg/mL, the area under the curve (AUC) for predicting MA with PFO was 0.845, with 72.55% sensitivity and 78.43% specificity.

CONCLUSIONS: MA patients with PFO have higher serum CGRP level. elevated CGRP concentration was associated with higher RLS grade and increased HIT-6 score. Higher serum CGRP level has certain clinical value in predicting PFO in MA patients.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Zhuhai Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine (Ethics batch number: 20,201,215,005).

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