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Characteristics, Risk Factors, and Outcomes in Acute Kidney Injury Patients: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study, Palestine.

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major medical problem affecting patients' quality of life and healthcare costs.

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the severity, risk factors, and outcomes of patients diagnosed with acute kidney injury (AKI), including community-acquired AKI (CA-AKI) and hospital-acquired AKI (HA-AKI), who were admitted to tertiary institutions in Palestine.

METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at multiple tertiary care hospitals in Palestine by reviewing patient charts from January 2020 to March 2023. The study included all patients aged ≥18 years who were admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with AKI at admission (CA-AKI) or who developed AKI 48 hours after admission (HA-AKI). Patients with incomplete medical records and those with no reported creatinine levels during their stay, pregnant women, kidney transplant patients, and end-stage renal disease patients were excluded. Data were analyzed using SPSS v22.0. The incidence of AKI in each group was compared using the chi-squared test.

RESULTS: This study included 259 participants. HA-AKI was present in 27.3% of the patients, while CA-AKI was 72.7%. The most common stage among patients was stage 3 (55.7%, HA-AKI) (42.9%, CA-AKI), and the most common comorbidity contributing to AKI was CKD. NSAIDs, ACE-I/ARBs, and DIURETICs were the most nephrotoxic drugs contributing to AKI. Patients with hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia, severe metabolic acidosis, or stage 3 AKI require renal replacement therapy. In addition, our findings revealed a significant association among AKI mortality, age, and heart disease.

CONCLUSION: CA-AKI was more prevalent than HA-AKI in Palestinian patients admitted for AKI. Risk factors for AKI included diabetes, CKD, and medications (antibiotics, NSAID, diuretics, and ACE-I/ARB). Preventive measures, medication management, and disease state management are necessary to minimize AKI during hospital admission or in the community.

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