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Epidemiology of Adenovirus Infection in Hospitalized Children in the United States From 1997 to 2019.

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to explore the prevalence, clinical features, resource utilization, temporal trends and outcomes associated with adenoviral infections in hospitalized children.

METHODS: A retrospective analysis using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Kids' Inpatient Database from 1997 to 2019 was performed. Children aged 29 days to 17 years with adenoviral infection were selected. Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis tests, linear trend analysis and multivariable analysis were used for data analysis.

RESULTS: A total of 40,135 children under 18 years of age with adenoviral infection were discharged in the United States with an overall prevalence of 18.9 per 10,000 discharges and 6.9 children per 100,000 population. By linear trend analysis, the hospitalization rate has significantly increased with the highest prevalence in 2019. Adenoviral infection was more prevalent in Black children, in winter months, in the Midwest region, in children with government insurance and in the lowest income quartile. The majority (85%) of adenovirus-related hospitalizations occurred under 6 years of age. Mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, acute kidney injury and liver failure were documented in 11.9%, 0.4%, 2.7% and 0.4%, respectively. The overall case fatality rate was 1.4%, which decreased from 1997 to 2019 (P < 0.05). By regression analysis, an increased mortality rate was associated with the need for mechanical ventilation, the presence of complex chronic conditions, immune deficiency, central nervous system infection and pneumonia/bronchiolitis.

CONCLUSIONS: Most human adenovirus infections occur in children under 6 years of age and cause mild illness. Human adenovirus can lead to serious illness in children with complex chronic conditions and immune deficiency conditions.

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