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Clinical Course and Outcomes of Infants with Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus Gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus (SGP), a subtype of Streptococcus bovis, is an uncommon but important cause of neonatal sepsis. Although uncommon, SGP infections during infancy have been associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality.

METHODS: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of available literature on the clinical course and outcomes of infants with SGP infection. Studies were identified using the following MeSH keywords: "Streptococcus gallolyticus," "Streptococcus bovis," "newborn" and "infant." Data including perinatal factors, clinical presentation, investigations, treatment and outcomes were extracted and analyzed.

RESULTS: A total of 46 articles were identified (116 cases: 60 S. bovis, 56 SGP). The cases were predominantly term (52%), male (57%) and born via vaginal delivery (67%). The most common symptom was fever [67% (95% confidence interval (CI): 43%-84%)], lethargy [66% (95% CI: 32%-89%)], tachypnea [59% (95% CI: 27%-85%)] and irritability [59% (95% CI: 34%-79%)]. Infants with early-onset infections (<3 days of life) were more likely to have respiratory symptoms and bacteremia (73%), whereas late-onset infections presented predominantly with gastrointestinal symptoms. Four mortalities were reported which occurred before antibiotic administration. Isolated bacteria were mostly penicillin-susceptible [95% (95% CI: 78-99%)] and cases treated with penicillin derivative had good recovery.

CONCLUSIONS: SGP is an important cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Penicillin derivative is an effective treatment for SGP, and outcomes appear to be favorable.

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