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Pursuing living donor liver transplantation improves outcomes of patients with autoimmune liver diseases - An intention-to-treat analysis.

Liver Transplantation 2024 April 17
Background Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) offers the opportunity to decrease waitlist time and mortality for patients with AILD; autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). We compared the survival of patients with a potential live donor (pLDLT) on the waitlist vs. no potential live donor (pDDLT), on an intention-to-treat (ITT) basis. Methods Our retrospective cohort study investigated adults with AILD listed for liver transplant at our program between 2000 and 2021. The pLDLT group comprised recipients with a potential live donor. Otherwise, they were included in the pDDLT group. ITT survival was assessed from the time of listing. Results Of the 533 patients included, 244(43.8%) had a potential living donor. Waitlist dropout was higher for the pDDLT groups among all AILDs (pDDLT 85[29.4%] vs. pLDLT 9[3.7], p<0.001). The 1-, 3- and 5-year ITT survival rates were higher for pLDLT vs. pDDLT among all AILDs (95.7%vs.78.1%, 89.0%vs.70.1%, and 87.1%vs.65.5%, p<0.001). After adjusting for covariates, pLDLT was associated with a 38% reduction in the risk of death among the AILD cohort (HR:0.62, 95%CI:0.42-0.93[p<0.05]), and 60% among the PSC cohort (HR:0.40, 95%CI:0.22-0.74[p<0.05]). There were no differences in the 1-, 3- and 5-year post-transplant survival between LDLT and DDLT (AILD: 95.6%vs.92.1%, 89.9%vs.89.4%, and 89.1%vs. 87.1%, p=0.41). This was consistent after adjusting for covariates (HR: 0.97, 95%CI:0.56-1.68[p>0.9]). Conclusion Our study suggests that having a potential live donor could decrease the risk of death in patients with PSC on the waitlist. Importantly, the post-transplant outcomes in this population are similar between the LDLT and DDLT groups.

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