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Vestibular migraine: an update.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We performed a narrative review of the recent findings in epidemiology, clinical presentation, mechanisms and treatment of vestibular migraine.

RECENT FINDINGS: Vestibular migraine is an underdiagnosed condition that has a high prevalence among general, headache and neuro-otology clinics. Vestibular migraine has a bimodal presentation probably associated with a hormonal component in women. These patients could have a complex clinical phenotype including concomitant autonomic, inflammatory or connective tissue conditions that have a higher prevalence of psychological symptoms, which may mistakenly lead to a diagnosis of a functional neurological disorder. A high proportion of patients with postural perceptual persistent dizziness have a migraine phenotype. Independently of the clinical presentation and past medical history, patients with the vestibular migraine phenotype can respond to regular migraine preventive treatments, including those targeting the calcitonin gene-related peptide pathways.

SUMMARY: Vestibular migraine is an underdiagnosed migraine phenotype that shares the pathophysiological mechanisms of migraine, with growing interest in recent years. A thorough anamnesis is essential to increase sensitivity in patients with unknown cause of dizziness and migraine treatment should be considered (see supplemental video-abstract).

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