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Improvement in Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes After Isolated Realignment Surgery in Patients With Large Cystic Osteochondral Lesion of the Talar Shoulder and Concurrent Malalignment.

BACKGROUND: Malalignment has been suggested as a predisposing factor for the development of osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLTs).

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of realignment surgery in patients with a large cystic OLT of the talar shoulder and concurrent malalignment of the foot and ankle.

STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

METHODS: The authors reviewed consecutive patients with large cystic OLTs (diameter, >10 mm) of the talar shoulder and concurrent malalignment of the foot and ankle who underwent realignment surgery between September 2013 and April 2021. The type of realignment procedure was determined based on patient symptoms and findings on plain radiographs and weightbearing computed tomography. Clinical improvement was assessed using pre- and postoperative Foot Function Index (FFI) scores and the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. The OLT location was categorized according to Raikin zone, and the OLT area and volume were measured and compared pre- and postoperatively. The comparative analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

RESULTS: In total, 27 ankles in 27 patients (mean age, 34.4 ± 11.9 years) were included in the analysis. There were 25 patients with a medial lesion (zone 4 [n = 19], zone 7 [n = 5], and zone 1 [n = 1]), and 2 patients with a lateral lesion (zone 6). Despite OLT location, patients' symptoms varied; 15 (55.6%) patients reported both medial- and lateral-sided pain, 10 (37%) reported lateral-sided pain, and 2 (7%) reported medial-sided pain. Supramalleolar osteotomy was performed in 18 patients, while foot and hindfoot correction without supramalleolar osteotomy was performed in 9 patients. Postoperatively, both the median FFI (from 44.4 [interquartile range (IQR), 35.7-52.2] to 9.1 [IQR, 5.2-13.9]) and median VAS pain score (from 6 [IQR, 5-6] to 1 [IQR, 1-2]) improved significantly ( P < .0001 for both), and the median lesion size (from 25.8 mm2 [IQR, 19.3-45.2 mm2 ] to 13.8 mm2 [IQR, 6.8-26.5 mm2 ]) and median volume (from 2226.8 mm3 [IQR, 1311-3104 mm3 ] to 1326.5 mm3 [IQR, 714-2100 mm3 ]) decreased significantly ( P < .0001 for both). During the mean follow-up of 4.1 ± 2.1 years, no subsequent surgery for OLT was necessary.

CONCLUSION: The results suggest that realignment procedures can improve the symptoms and radiographic profile of OLTs in patients with large cystic OLTs of the talar shoulder and malalignment of the foot and ankle.

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