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Racial/ethnic differences in 21-gene recurrence score and survival among patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

BMC Cancer 2024 April 14
BACKGROUND: Despite numerous studies on racial/ethnic disparities among patients with breast cancer, there is a paucity of literature evaluating racial/ethnic differences in 21-gene recurrence score (RS) and survival differences stratified by RS risk categories. We thus performed an observational cohort study to examine racial/ethnic disparities in the context of RS.

METHODS: The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was queried for female patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2018 with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, pT1-3N0-1aM0 breast cancer who received surgery followed by adjuvant endocrine therapy and had RS data available. Logistic multivariable analysis (MVA) was built to evaluate variables associated with RS ≥ 26. Cox MVA was used to evaluate OS. Subgroup analyses were performed to compare the magnitude of racial/ethnic differences stratified by RS. P values less than 0.017 were considered statistically significant based on Bonferroni correction.

RESULTS: A total of 140,133 women were included for analysis. Of these, 115,651 (82.5%), 8,213 (5.9%), 10,814 (7.7%), and 5,455 (3.9%) were NHW, Hispanic, Black, and API women, respectively. Median (IQR) follow up was 66.2 months (48.0-89.8). Logistic MVA showed that, compared with NHW women, Black women were associated with higher RS (≥ 26 vs < 26: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.26, p < 0.001), while HW (aOR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86-1.00, p = 0.04) and API women (aOR 1.03, 95% CI 0.95-1.13, p = 0.45) were not. Cox MVA showed that, compared with NHW women, Black women had worse OS (adjusted hazards ratio [aHR] 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.19, p = 0.012), while HW (aHR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.94, p = 0.001) and API (aHR 0.66, 95% CI 0.56-0.77, p < 0.001) women had better OS. In subgroup analysis, similar findings were noted among those with RS < 26, while only API women were associated with improved OS among others with RS ≥ 26.

CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the largest study using nationwide oncology database to suggest that Black women were associated with higher RS, while HW and API women were not. It also suggested that Black women were associated with worse OS among those with RS < 26, while API women were associated with improved OS regardless of RS when compared to NHW women.

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