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Renoprotective mechanisms of exercise training against acute and chronic renal diseases - A perspective based on experimental studies.

Life Sciences 2024 April 12
Regular exercise training can lead to several health benefits, reduce mortality risk, and increase life expectancy. On the other hand, a sedentary lifestyle is a known risk factor for chronic diseases and increased mortality. Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) represent a significant global health problem, affecting millions of people worldwide. The progression from AKI to CKD is well-recognized in the literature, and exercise training has emerged as a potential renoprotective strategy. Thus, this article aims to review the main molecular mechanisms underlying the renoprotective actions of exercise training in the context of AKI and CKD, focusing on its antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-fibrotic, and autophagy regulatory effects. For that, bibliographical research was carried out in Medline/PubMed and Scielo databases. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in renal diseases are not fully understood, experimental studies demonstrate that oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and dysregulation of fibrotic and autophagic processes play central roles in the development of tissue damage. Increasing evidence has suggested that exercise can beneficially modulate these mechanisms, potentially becoming a safe and effective non-pharmacological strategy for kidney health protection and promotion. Thus, the evidence base discussed in this review suggests that an adequate training program emerges as a valuable tool for preserving renal function in experimental animals, mainly through the production of antioxidant enzymes, nitric oxide (NO), irisin, IL-10, and IL-11. Future research can continue to explore these mechanisms to develop specific guidelines for the prescription of exercise training in different populations of patients with kidney diseases.

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