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False-negative factors of percutaneous transluminal clamp biopsy for suspected malignant biliary stricture: 194 cases analyzed from a single center.

Insights Into Imaging 2024 April 13
OBJECTIVE: To study the predictive factors of false negatives in the diagnosis of biliary stricture (BS) by percutaneous transluminal clamp biopsy (PTCB).

METHOD: From January 2016 to January 2021, 194 patients with a high suspicion of malignant tumors due to BS underwent PTCB during biliary drainage at our department. The final diagnosis was confirmed by postoperative pathology, other tissue or cell evidence, or medical imaging follow-up. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed on the pathological results, summarizing the independent risk factors for false-negative value (FNV) to help further clinical diagnosis and treatment.

RESULTS: Of the 194 cases, 176 and 18 cases were finally diagnosed as malignant and benign BS, respectively, compared to 144 and 50 cases by PTCB, including 32 false-negative cases. The sensitivity, specificity, false-positive value, and FNV of PTCB were 81.8%, 100%, 0%, and 18.2%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that non-cholangiocarcinoma BS was an independent risk factor for FNV of PTCB (odds ratio 7.5 (95% CI 1.74-32.6), p < 0.01).

CONCLUSION: PTCB is an effective minimally invasive interventional technique for BS diagnosis. Non-cholangiocarcinoma BS is an independent risk factor for FNV.

CRITICAL RELEVANCE STATEMENT: Identifying factors that are predictive of false-negative results by percutaneous transluminal clamp biopsy in the setting of biliary stricture may have a guiding effect on clinical practice.

KEY POINTS: • Factors predictive of false negatives in the diagnosis of biliary stricture etiology by PTCB may aid in the interpretation of results. • Non-cholangiocarcinoma BS is an independent risk factor for FNV on PTCB. • PTCB is an effective minimally invasive interventional technique for BS diagnosis.

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