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COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF SURGICAL TREATMENT OF COMPLICATIONS OF ULCERATIVE COLITIS IN CHILDREN.

Georgian Medical News 2024 Februrary
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease of the colon, characterized by a chronic relapsing course, affecting only the colon with hemorrhagic-purulent inflammation of the mucous and submucosal layer of the intestinal wall, as well as the frequent development of local and systemic complications. The incidence of ulcerative colitis is increasing every year. Objective - improving the results of surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis in children through the use of laparoscopic and video-assisted technologies in clinical practice. The work carried out the analysis of the case histories of 75 (boys - 34, girls - 41) children with ulcerative colitis who were treated in surgical departments of Baku and Moscow - over a 12-year period - from 2010 to 2022. This study was a retrospective cohort analysis with prospective database completion. The main clinical group (Group 1) of the study included 53 children with ulcerative colitis (UC), who underwent surgical treatment for abdominal complications using minimally invasive laparoscopic techniques developed in the clinic. There were 25 boys (47.2%), girls - 28 (52.8%). The age of the children ranged from 4 to 17 years. It is characteristic that the main group of patients with UC consisted of adolescent children. Comparative Group 2 in our study included 22 children with UC - 9 boys (40.9%), girls 13 (59.1%), in whom surgical treatment of complications was carried out using previously generally accepted "open" surgical techniques - classical emergency and planned operations - colectomy and proctocolectomy - using wide laparotomy approaches. The technique of laparoscopic total proctocolectomy with direct ileoanal anastomosis, developed and adopted in our clinic, is an effective method of treatment for this serious disease, not inferior to "open" operations in any aspect of versatility, convenience, radicality, etc. Laparoscopic operations can be performed and indicated in almost all clinical situations in children with complicated inflammatory bowel diseases, for emergency indications and routinely, as well as during radical surgical treatment for ulcerative colitis. Endosurgical ostomy operations, total proctocolectomy, ileal retraction with the formation of ileoanal anastomosis are an effective and safe method of treatment in these complex groups of patients.

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