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MEDICO-LEGAL APPLICATIONS OF FRACTURE HEMATOMA: REVIEW.

Georgian Medical News 2024 Februrary
This review aimed to elucidate the critical role of fracture hematoma in forensic medicine, with a specific focus on its utility in differentiating antemortem from postmortem fractures. The study seeks to provide a comprehensive synthesis of current knowledge on the subject, highlighting the biological and medico-legal implications of fracture hematoma analysis in forensic investigations. A systematic review of literature was conducted, encompassing various scientific databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, focusing on studies published from 2000 to 2024. The search employed keywords such as "fracture hematoma," "antemortem fractures," "perimortem fractures" and "postmortem fractures," among others, to explore relevant data. Selected studies were scrutinized based on their relevance, the presence of substantial data on fracture hematoma, and their contribution to forensic analysis. The review underscores the significance of fracture hematoma as an indicator of antemortem injuries, revealing that active blood circulation at the time of injury facilitates hematoma formation. Detailed analyses within the selected studies illustrate the interplay of cellular and molecular dynamics within fracture hematomas, emphasizing the roles of cytokines, particularly IL-6, and cellular constituents in the healing process. Fracture hematoma analysis emerges as a vital forensic tool in establishing the vitality of bone fractures, enhancing the accuracy of forensic assessments. However, the review also acknowledges the challenges posed by individual healing variability and postmortem changes, suggesting a need for further research to refine the interpretative frameworks used in forensic hematoma analysis.

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