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Endocrine health in survivors of adult-onset cancer.

Long-term survivors of cancer (ie, the patient who is considered cured or for whom the disease is under long-term control and unlikely to recur) are at an increased risk of developing endocrine complications such as hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunctions, hypogonadisms, osteoporosis, or metabolic disorders, particularly when intensive tumour-directed therapies are applied. Symptom severity associated with these conditions ranges from mild and subclinical to highly detrimental, affecting individual health and quality of life. Although they are usually manageable, many of these endocrine pathologies remain underdiagnosed and untreated for years. To address this challenge, a higher degree of awareness, standardised screening tools, comprehensible treatment algorithms, and a close collaborative effort between endocrinologists and oncologists are essential to early identify patients who are at risk, and to implement appropriate treatment protocols. This Review highlights common symptoms and conditions related to endocrine disorders among survivors of adult-onset cancer, provides a summary of the currently available practice guidelines, and proposes a practical approach to diagnose affected patients among this group.

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