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Prognosis of patients with coexisting obesity and malnutrition after ischemic stroke: A cohort study.

Clinical Nutrition 2024 April 6
BACKGROUND: The double burden of malnutrition, defined as the coexistence of obesity and malnutrition, is an increasing global health concern and is unclear in patients after ischemic stroke. The current study explored the combined impacts of obesity and malnutrition on patients with ischemic stroke.

METHODS: We conducted a single-center prospective cohort study with patients with ischemic stroke enrolled in Minhang Hospital in China between January 2018 and December 2022. Patients were stratified into four categories based on their obesity (defined by body mass index) and nutritional status (classified according to the Controlling Nutritional Status score): (1) nourished nonobese, (2) malnourished nonobese, (3) nourished obese, and (4) malnourished obese. The primary end points were poor outcomes and all-cause mortality at 3 months.

RESULTS: A total of 3160 participants with ischemic stroke were included in our study, of which 64.7% were male and the mean age was 69 years. Over 50% of patients were malnourished. At 3-month follow-up, the malnourished nonobese had the worst outcomes (34.4%), followed by the malnourished obese (33.2%), nourished nonobese (25.1%), and nourished obese (21.8%; P < 0.001). In multivariable analyses, with nourished nonobese group as the reference, the malnourished nonobese group displayed poorer outcomes (odds ratio [OR], 1.395 [95% CI, 1.169-1.664], P < 0.001) and higher all-cause mortality (OR, 1.541 [95% CI, 1.054-2.253], P = 0.026), but only a nonsignificant increase in poor prognosis rate (33.2% vs. 25.1%, P = 0.102) and mortality (4.2% vs. 3.6%, P = 0.902) were observed in the malnourished obese group.

CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of malnutrition is observed in the large population suffering from ischemic attack, even in the obese. Malnourished patients have the worst prognosis particularly in those with severe nutritional status regardless of obesity, while the best functional outcomes and the lowest mortality are demonstrated in nourished obese participants.

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