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Periodontitis increases the risk of gastrointestinal dysfunction: an update on the plausible pathogenic molecuar mechanisms.

Periodontitis is an immuno-inflammatory disease of the soft tissues surrounding the teeth. Periodontitis is linked to many communicable and non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancers. The oral-systemic link between periodontal disease and systemic diseases is attributed to the spread of inflammation, microbial products and microbes to distant organ systems. Oral bacteria reach the gut via swallowed saliva, whereby they induce gut dysbiosis and gastrointestinal dysfunctions. Some periodontal pathogens like Porphyromonas. gingivalis, Klebsiella, Helicobacter. Pylori, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Parvimonas micra, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Peptostreptococcus, Haemophilus, Aggregatibacter actinomycetomcommitans and Streptococcus mutans can withstand the unfavorable acidic, survive in the gut and result in gut dysbiosis. Gut dysbiosis increases gut inflammation, and induce dysplastic changes that lead to gut dysfunction. Various studies have linked oral bacteria, and oral-gut axis to various GIT disorders like inflammatory bowel disease, liver diseases, hepatocellular and pancreatic ductal carcinoma, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. Although the correlation between periodontitis and GIT disorders is well established, the intricate molecular mechanisms by which oral microflora induce these changes have not been discussed extensively. This review comprehensively discusses the intricate and unique molecular and immunological mechanisms by which periodontal pathogens can induce gut dysbiosis and dysfunction.

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