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Demystifying diabetes health coaching: A scoping review unveiling the 'who' and 'where' of health coaching for adults with type 2 diabetes.

UNLABELLED: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex chronic condition that requires ongoing self-management. Diabetes health coaching interventions provide personalized healthcare programming to address physical and psychosocial aspects of diabetes self-management.

AIMS: This scoping review aims to explore the contexts and settings of diabetes health coaching interventions for adults with T2D, using the RE-AIM framework.

METHODS: A search was completed in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Emcare, Embase and Cochrane. Included citations described adults with exclusively T2D who had received a health coaching intervention. Citations were excluded if they focused on any other types of diabetes or diabetes prevention.

RESULTS: A total of 3418 records were identified through database and manual searches, with 29 citations selected for data extraction. Most health coaching interventions were delivered by health professionals, many employed lay health workers and a few included peer coaches. While many health coaching interventions were delivered remotely, in-person intervention settings were distributed among primary care, community health settings and non-healthcare sites.

CONCLUSION: The findings of this review suggest that diabetes health coaching may be implemented by a variety of providers in different settings. Further research is required to standardize training and implementation of health coaching and evaluate its long-term effectiveness.

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