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Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors for the treatment of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL): current progress and latest advances.

Leukemia & Lymphoma 2024 April 11
The incidence of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) has steadily increased, particularly in elderly patients. Although highly responsive to first-line chemotherapy and radiotherapy, approximately 50% of patients relapse or become refractory within 1 year. Prognosis following relapse is dismal and no standard salvage therapy exists. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a key regulator of the B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway, has emerged as a promising therapeutic target. The first BTK inhibitor ibrutinib has been evaluated in the relapsed/refractory PCNSL setting, with overall response rates of 51.9%-89.0% and median progression-free survival of 4.6-4.8 months. However, ibrutinib inhibits several kinases in addition to BTK, leading to off-target effects. Second-generation BTK inhibitors have since been developed, which afford greater selectivity for BTK and fewer off-target effects. We review current practices in the diagnosis and evaluation of PCNSL, as well as clinical trials of BTK inhibitors in PCNSL and future developments in PCNSL treatment.

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