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Pulsed lavage in joint arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

BACKGROUND: Knee and hip osteoarthritis affects millions of people around the world and is expected to rise even more in frequency as the population ages. Joint arthroplasty is the surgical management of choice in these articulations. Heterotopic ossification and radiolucent lines formation are two frequent problems faced in hip and knee replacements respectively. Some studies show that the usage of pulsed lavage may prevent their formation.

AIM: To compare pulsed lavage to standard lavage in joint arthroplasty.

METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane, and Google Scholar (page 1-20) were searched till December 2023. Only comparative studies were included. The clinical outcomes evaluated were the heterotopic ossification formation in hip replacements, radiolucent lines formation, and functional knee scores in knee replacements.

RESULTS: Four studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Pulsed lavage was shown to reduce the formation of radiolucent lines ( P = 0.001). However, no difference was seen in the remaining outcomes.

CONCLUSION: Pulsed lavage reduced the formation of radiolucent lines in knee replacements. No difference was seen in the remaining outcomes. Furthermore, the clinical significance of these radiolucent lines is poorly understood. Better conducted randomized controlled studies and cost-effectivity studies are needed to reinforce these findings.

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