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Definitions and unmet needs in the management of oligomestatic renal cell carcinoma in the modern era.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oligometastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a complex entity, potentially leading to a specific clinical management of these patients. Recent and ongoing trials have raised several unresolved questions that could impact clinical routine practice, advocating for the integration of novel treatment options (systemic treatment, cytoreductive surgery, or stereotactic body radiotherapy - SBRT) with varied modalities and objectives.

RECENT FINDINGS: Immunotherapy represents a breakthrough in the systemic treatment of mRCC. However, many questions are still unsolved regarding the perfect timing for starting systemic and whether the systemic treatment could improve the activity of metastases-directed strategies. Moreover, the widespread use of adjuvant immunotherapy will challenge the treatment paradigm in the oligorecurrent scenario. Radical surgery of metastases and more recently SBRT - both eventually associated with systemic treatment - actually represent two important approaches to be considered in oligometastatic patients.

SUMMARY: Oligometastatic RCC represents a status including a wide spectrum of clinical conditions that requires a tailored treatment approach. The correct management integrates local approaches (either metastasectomy or SRBT) and systemic (immune)-therapy. Several unmet needs have to be investigated, mainly regarding the lack of prospective randomized trials that directly compare modern therapies and different integration strategies.

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