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Spectrum of Imaging Findings and Complications After Hepatic Transarterial Chemoembolization for Liver Tumors.

This study reviews the spectrum of imaging findings and complications after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for the treatment of primary liver tumors (hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma) and liver metastases. The review encompasses a spectrum of imaging criteria for assessing treatment response, including the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors guidelines, tumor enhancement, and apparent diffusion coefficient alterations.We discuss the expected posttreatment changes and imaging responses to TACE, describing favorable and poor responses. Moreover, we present cases that demonstrate potential complications post-TACE, including biloma formation, acute cholecystitis, abscesses, duodenal perforation, arterial injury, and nontarget embolization. Each complication is described in detail, considering its causes, risk factors, clinical presentation, and imaging characteristics.To illustrate these findings, a series of clinical cases is presented, featuring diverse imaging modalities including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and digital subtraction angiography.

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