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Fat-Poor Hepatic Angiomyolipoma in Noncirrhotic Livers: Imaging Features, Pathology, and Differential Diagnosis.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate imaging features of fat-poor hepatic angiomyolipomas in noncirrhotic livers in order to enhance the diagnostic accuracy for this condition.

METHODS: The clinical and imaging data of 19 patients with fat-poor hepatic angiomyolipoma (fpHAML) was retrospectively analyzed.

RESULTS: Of the 19 patients without hepatitis, cirrhosis, or sarcoidosis, 16 had no clinical symptoms. There were 20 lesions in 19 patients. Macroscopic fat, calcification, hemorrhage, necrosis, and pseudocapsule were not observed in the 20 lesions. All lesions showed marked enhancement on the arterial phase, and the degree of enhancement was significantly higher than that in the adjacent hepatic parenchyma. In 8 cases, the enhancement of the portal phase was higher than that in the arterial phase. Multiple intratumor vessels were observed in the tumor, and lesions with diameters larger than 3.0 cm were more frequently observed. The degree of enhancement of 18 lesions on portal phase or delayed phase was slightly higher than or equal to that in the surrounding hepatic parenchyma. The lesions were hyperintense on diffusion-weighted imaging and showed homogeneous hypointensity on the hepatobiliary phase. Only 6 cases showed the presence of an early draining vein.

CONCLUSIONS: These imaging features have some implications for the diagnosis of fpHAML. Therefore, an increased awareness of fpHAML is needed among radiologists.

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