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Utility of Combined Use of Imaging Features From Abdominopelvic CT and CA 125 to Identify Presence of CT Occult Peritoneal Metastases in Advanced Gastric Cancer.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to identify the presence of occult peritoneal metastasis (OPM) in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) by using clinical characteristics and abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) features.

METHODS: This retrospective study included 66 patients with OPM and 111 patients without peritoneal metastasis (non-PM [NPM]) who underwent preoperative contrast-enhanced CT between January 2020 and December 2021. Occult PMs means PMs that are missed by CT but later diagnosed by laparoscopy or laparotomy. Patients with NPM means patients have neither PM nor other distant metastases, indicating there is no evidence of distant metastases in patients with AGC. Patients' clinical characteristics and CT features such as tumor marker, Borrmann IV, enhancement patterns, and pelvic ascites were observed by 2 experienced radiologists. Computed tomography features and clinical characteristics were combined to construct an indicator for identifying the presence of OPM in patients with AGC based on a logistic regression model. Receiver operating characteristic curves and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were generated to assess the diagnostic performance of the combined indicator.

RESULTS: Four independent predictors (Borrmann IV, pelvic ascites, carbohydrate antigen 125, and normalized arterial CT value) differed significantly between OPM and NPM and performed outstandingly in distinguishing patients with OPM from those without PM (AUC = 0.643-0.696). The combined indicator showed a higher AUC value than the independent risk factors (0.820 vs 0.643-0.696).

CONCLUSIONS: The combined indicator based on abdominopelvic CT features and carbohydrate antigen 125 may assist clinicians in identifying the presence of CT OPMs in patients with AGC.

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