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d-galactose causes embryonic development arrest and placental development disorders in mice by increasing ROS and inhibiting SIRT1/FOXO3a axis.

Placenta 2024 April 7
INTRODUCTION: Does an elevation in d-Galactose (D-Gal) levels within the body contribute to abnormal embryonic development and placental dysfunction during pregnancy?

METHODS: Mouse embryos were cultivated to the blastocyst stage under varying concentrations of D-Gal. The blastocyst formation rate was measured, and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), and forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a) in blastocysts were assessed. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with either saline or D-Gal with or without SRT1720. On the 14th day of pregnancy, the fetal absorption rate and placental weight were recorded. Placental levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined. The expression of senescence-related factors, such as senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) in the placenta was examined, and the expression of placental SIRT1, FOXO3a and p21 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.

RESULTS: D-Gal adversely affects early embryonic development in vitro, resulting in a decreased blastocyst formation rate. Furthermore, D-Gal downregulates SIRT1 and FOXO3a while increasing ROS levels in blastocysts. Concurrently, D-Gal induces placental dysfunction, characterized by an elevated fetal absorption rate, reduced placental weight, diminished SOD activity, and increased MDA content. The senescence-related factor SA-β-gal was detected in the placenta, along with altered expression of placental SIRT1, FOXO3a, and p21. The SIRT1 agonist SRT1720 mitigated this damage by increasing SIRT1 and FOXO3a expression.

DISCUSSION: The inhibition of early embryonic development and placental dysfunction induced by D-Gal may be attributed to the dysregulation of SIRT1. Activating SIRT1 emerges as a potentially effective strategy for alleviating the adverse effects of D-Gal exposure.

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