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Prenatal cardiac findings and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: Fetal detection and evaluation.

Prenatal Diagnosis 2024 April 10
Clinical features of 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are highly variable between affected individuals and frequently include a subset of conotruncal and aortic arch anomalies. Many are diagnosed with 22q11.2DS when they present as a fetus, newborn or infant with characteristic cardiac findings and subsequently undergo genetic testing. The presence of an aortic arch anomaly with characteristic intracardiac anomalies increases the likelihood that the patient has 22q11.2 DS, but those with an aortic arch anomaly and normal intracardiac anatomy are also at risk. It is particularly important to identify the fetus at risk for 22q11.2DS in order to prepare the expectant parents and plan postnatal care for optimal outcomes. Fetal anatomy scans now readily identify aortic arch anomalies (aberrant right subclavian artery, right sided aortic arch or double aortic arch) in the three-vessel tracheal view. Given the association of 22q11.2DS with aortic arch anomalies with and without intracardiac defects, this review highlights the importance of recognizing the fetus at risk for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome with an aortic arch anomaly and details current methods for genetic testing. To assist in the prenatal diagnosis of 22q11.2DS, this review summarizes the seminal features of 22q11.2DS, its prenatal presentation and current methods for genetic testing.

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