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Studies Related to the Involvement of EsA in Improving Intestinal Inflammation in Acute Pancreatitis via the NF- κ B Pathway.

BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a clinically frequent acute abdominal condition, which refers to an inflammatory response syndrome of edema, bleeding, and even necrosis caused by abnormal activation of the pancreas's own digestive enzymes. Intestinal damage can occur early in the course of AP and is manifested by impaired intestinal mucosal barrier function, and inflammatory reactions of the intestinal mucosa, among other factors. It can cause translocation of intestinal bacteria and endotoxins, further aggravating the condition of AP. Therefore, actively protecting the intestinal mucosal barrier, controlling the progression of intestinal inflammation, and improving intestinal dynamics in the early stages of AP play an important role in enhancing the prognosis of AP.

METHODS: The viability and apoptosis of RAW264.7 cells treated with Esculentoside A (EsA) and/or lipopolysaccharide were detected using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins and NF- κ B signaling pathway-related proteins were detected by western blot (WB). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure TNF- α and IL-6 secretion.

RESULTS: In vitro experiments demonstrated that EsA not only promoted the apoptosis of inflammatory cells but also reduced the secretion of TNF- α and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, it inhibited the activation of the NF- κ B signaling pathway by decreasing the expression of phosphorylated-p65(p-p65) and elevating the expression of I κ B α . Similarly, in vivo experiments using a rat AP model showed that EsA inhibited the expression of p-p65 elevating the expression of I κ B α in the intestinal tissues of the rat AP model and promoting the apoptosis of inflammatory cells in the intestinal mucosa in vivo experiments, while improving the pathological outcome of the pancreatic and intestinal tissues.

CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that EsA can reduce intestinal inflammation in the rat AP model and that EsA may be a candidate for treating intestinal inflammation in AP and further arresting AP progression.

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