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Prevalence and genetic diversity of human rhinovirus among patients with acute respiratory infections in China, 2012-2021.

To understand the prevalence of rhinovirus (RV) among acute respiratory infection (ARI) patients, 10-year ARI surveillance in multiple provinces of China were conducted during 2012-2021. Of 15 645 ARI patients, 1180 (7.54%) were confirmed to have RV infection and 820 (69.49%) were children under 5 years of age. RV typing was performed on the 527 VP1 gene sequences, and species A, B, and C accounted for 73.24%, 4.93%, and 21.82%, respectively. Although no significant difference in the proportions of age groups or disease severity was found between RV species, RV-C was more frequently detected in children under 5 years of age, RV-A was more frequently detected in elderly individuals (≥60), and the proportions of pneumonia in RV-A and RV-C patients were higher than those in RV-B patients. The epidemic peak of RV-A was earlier than that of RV-C. A total of 57 types of RV-A, 13 types of RV-B, and 35 types of RV-C were identified in RV-infected patients, and two uncertain RV types were also detected. The findings showed a few differences in epidemiological and clinical features between RV species in ARI patients, and RV-A and RV-C were more prevalent than RV-B.

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