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Visualization of Cerebral Pressure Autoregulatory Insults in Traumatic Brain Injury.

OBJECTIVES: The first aim was to investigate the combined effect of insult intensity and duration of the pressure reactivity index (PRx) and deviation from the autoregulatory cerebral perfusion pressure target (∆CPPopt = actual CPP - optimal CPP [CPPopt]) on outcome in traumatic brain injury. The second aim was to determine if PRx influenced the association between intracranial pressure (ICP), CPP, and ∆CPPopt with outcome.

DESIGN: Observational cohort study.

SETTING: Neurocritical care unit, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

PATIENTS: Five hundred fifty-three traumatic brain injury patients with ICP and arterial blood pressure monitoring and 6-month outcome data (Glasgow Outcome Scale [GOS]).

INTERVENTION: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The insult intensity (mm Hg or PRx coefficient) and duration (minutes) of ICP, PRx, CPP, and ∆CPPopt were correlated with GOS and visualized in heatmaps. In these plots, there was a transition from favorable to unfavorable outcome when PRx remained positive for 30 minutes and this was also the case for shorter durations when the intensity was higher. In a similar plot of ∆CPPopt, there was a gradual transition from favorable to unfavorable outcome when ∆CPPopt went below -5 mm Hg for 30-minute episodes of time and for shorter durations for more negative ∆CPPopt. Furthermore, the percentage of monitoring time with certain combinations of PRx with ICP, CPP, and ∆CPPopt were correlated with GOS and visualized in heatmaps. In the combined PRx/ICP heatmap, ICP above 20 mm Hg together with PRx above 0 correlated with unfavorable outcome. In a PRx/CPP heatmap, CPP below 70 mm Hg together with PRx above 0.2-0.4 correlated with unfavorable outcome. In the PRx-/∆CPPopt heatmap, ∆CPPopt below 0 together with PRx above 0.2-0.4 correlated with unfavorable outcome.

CONCLUSIONS: Higher intensities for longer durations of positive PRx and negative ∆CPPopt correlated with worse outcome. Elevated ICP, low CPP, and negative ∆CPPopt were particularly associated with worse outcomes when the cerebral pressure autoregulation was concurrently impaired.

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