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Congenital tibial pseudarthrosis: A challenge in pediatric radiology.

Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) is a rare disorder affecting the skeletal system in pediatric population with an estimated incidence of 1:140,000 to 1:250,000 newborns. It is characterized by deformity of the tibia, including anterolateral bowing of the bone diaphysis and/or narrowing of the medullary canal, leading to instability or fracture. CPT can be either idiopathic or associated with underlying conditions such as type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1), fibrous dysplasia, or Campanacci's osteofibrous dysplasia. Diagnosis is based on clinical and imaging findings, using conventional radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The disorder is characterized by recurrent pathological fractures of the tibia or fibula during childhood, often beginning by the age of 2 years. Treatment options include surgical and nonsurgical management.

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