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The Impact of Caustic Ingestion on Nutritional Status: Case Report.

INTRODUCTION: Caustic injuries remain a major public health concern. Nutritional status plays a pivotal role in determining the outcome. Unfortunately, nutritional care guidelines are not widely implemented in clinical practice, and decisions are often based on prior experience and local policies.

CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of an 83-year-old man who accidentally ingested alkali, resulting in severe caustic injury and subsequent complications that further deteriorated his nutritional status. The management of esophageal strictures necessitated constant adjustments to the nutritional strategies employed. The clinical evaluation revealed protein and energy malnutrition, accompanied by type 2 intestinal failure. However, with individually tailored parenteral nutritional therapy, a significant improvement in the patient's nutritional status was observed.

CONCLUSION: Recognizing that caustic injuries increase metabolic demands, a comprehensive and active nutritional assessment is crucial, focusing on the need for adequate energy, high protein intake, and an appropriate feeding route. In cases of acute or prolonged type 2 intestinal failure with insufficient oral or enteral nutrition, parenteral feeding should be the primary therapy. Effective management of caustic injuries requires a multidisciplinary and multicenter approach, integrating nutritional evaluation, including body composition measurements, into the clinical algorithm. Early initiation of nutritional therapy is vital to prevent chronic intestinal failure.

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