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TCRαβ-depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplant and third-party CD45RA + depleted adoptive cell therapy for treatment of post-transplant parvovirus B19 aplastic crisis.

This is a case report of a 6-year-old girl with relapsed B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in which adoptive cell therapy was applied successfully to treat refractory human parvovirus (HPV) B19 infection. Allogenic chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy (bispecific CD19/CD22) was bridged to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) using a haploidentical paternal donor. However, HPV B19 DNAemia progressed and transfusion-related graft versus host disease occurred. After finding a third-party related donor with a better HLA match, haploidentical HPV B19-seropositive CD45RA+ depleted cells (16.5 × 106 /kg) were administered. The HPV B19 DNAemia became negative within 1 week and the reticulocyte, neutrophil, hemoglobin, and platelet counts gradually normalized. The patient remained stable during the 1-year outpatient follow-up period. Thus, our case report highlights that persistent B19 infection can lead to pancytopenia, aplastic crisis, and graft rejection and TCRαβ+ depleted haplo-HSCT is an effective means of hematopoiesis recovery. CD45RO memory T-cell therapy is the key to treating and preventing the development of refractory severe HPV B19 infection.

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