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Temporal metabolomics state in pregnant rat: Analysis of amniotic fluid, placenta, and maternal plasma at embryonic and fetal time points.

Placenta 2024 March 31
INTRODUCTION: During pregnancy, the dynamic metabolic demands for fetal growth require a continuous supply of essential metabolites. Understanding maternal metabolome changes during gestation is crucial for predicting disease risks in neonates.

METHODS: The study aimed to characterize the placental and amniotic fluid (AF) metabolomes during gestation in rats at gestational days GD-13 and 19 reflecting the end of the embryonic and fetal periods, respectively, and the maternal plasma, using metabolomics (LC-MS) and chemometrics. The objective was to highlight, through univariate and multivariate analyses, the complementarity of the data obtained from these different biological matrices.

RESULTS: The biological matrix had more impact on the metabolome composition than the gestational stage. The placental and AF metabolomes showed specific metabolome evolving over the two gestational stages. Analyzing the three targeted metabolomes revealed evolving pathways in arginine and proline metabolism/glutathione metabolism and phenylalanine metabolism; purine metabolism; and carbohydrate metabolism. Significantly, lipid metabolism in the placenta exhibited substantial changes with higher levels of certain phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelins at GD19 while some cholesteryl esters and some glycosphingolipids levels being in higher levels at GD13.

DISCUSSION: These data highlight the metabolic gradients (mainly in placenta, also in AF, but only a few in plasma) observed through embryonic patterning and organ development during mid-to late gestation.

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