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Pre-frailty after blood or marrow transplantation and the risk of subsequent mortality.

Leukemia 2024 April 6
We examined the prevalence, risk factors, and association between pre-frailty and subsequent mortality after blood or marrow transplantation (BMT). Study participants were drawn from the BMT Survivor Study (BMTSS) and included 3346 individuals who underwent BMT between 1974 and 2014 at one of three transplant centers and survived ≥2 years post-BMT. Participants completed the BMTSS survey at a median of 9 years from BMT and were followed for subsequent mortality for a median of 5 years after survey completion. Closest-age and same-sex biological siblings also completed the survey. Previously published self-reported indices (exhaustion, weakness, low energy expenditure, slowness, unintentional weight loss) classified participants as non-frail (0-1 indices) or pre-frail (2 indices). National Death Index was used to determine vital status and cause of death. Overall, 626 (18.7%) BMT survivors were pre-frail. BMT survivors had a 3.2-fold higher odds of being pre-frail (95% CI = 1.9-5.3) compared to siblings. Compared to non-frail survivors, pre-frail survivors had higher hazards of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.4-2.0). Female sex, pre-BMT radiation, smoking, lack of exercise, anxiety, and severe/life-threatening chronic health conditions were associated with pre-frailty. The novel association between pre-frailty and subsequent mortality provides evidence for interventions as pre-frail individuals may transition back to their robust state.

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