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Exploring evolutionary trajectories in ovarian cancer patients by longitudinal analysis of ctDNA.

OBJECTIVES: We analysed whether temporal heterogeneity of ctDNA encodes evolutionary patterns in ovarian cancer.

METHODS: Targeted sequencing of 275 cancer-associated genes was performed in a primary tumor biopsy and in ctDNA of six longitudinal plasma samples from 15 patients, using the Illumina platform.

RESULTS: While there was low overall concordance between the mutational spectrum of the primary tumor biopsies vs. ctDNA, TP53 variants were the most commonly shared somatic alterations. Up to three variant clusters were detected in each tumor biopsy, likely representing predominant clones of the primary tumor, most of them harbouring a TP53 variant. By tracing these clusters in ctDNA, we propose that liquid biopsy may allow to assess the contribution of ancestral clones of the tumor to relapsed abdominal masses, revealing two evolutionary patterns. In pattern#1, clusters detected in the primary tumor biopsy were likely relapse seeding clones, as they contributed a major share to ctDNA at relapse. In pattern#2, similar clusters were present in tumors and ctDNA; however, they were entirely cleared from liquid biopsy after chemotherapy and were undetectable at relapse. ctDNA private variants were present among both patterns, with some of them mirroring subclonal expansions after chemotherapy.

CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that tracing the temporal heterogeneity of ctDNA, even below exome scale resolution, deciphers evolutionary trajectories in ovarian cancer. Furthermore, we describe two evolutionary patterns that may help to identify relapse seeding clones for targeted therapy.

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