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Post-therapeutic squamous cell transformation of a metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma with comparison of molecular profiles: a case report and review of the literature.

Transformation of primary prostate adenocarcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma after initial treatment with chemotherapy and hormonal therapy is extremely rare and typically results in rapid treatment-refractory disease progression and death. Here, we present a case of a 64-year-old man who was initially diagnosed with metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma (positive PSA and NKX3.1 stains, total PSA 747.2 ng/ml) to the thoracic spine (T8) in 2019. The patient received androgen deprivation therapy and chemotherapy with good response (PSA 2.53 ng/ml). In 2022, the patient had a tumor resection from the left humerus with a consequent fracture. Pathology showed pure squamous carcinoma without any adenocarcinoma component (PSA and NKX3.1 stains negative and weak p504s stain, PSA 19.82 ng/ml). Given the patient's history of metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma and no history of any other malignancies, a diagnosis of squamous carcinoma transformed from prostate adenocarcinoma was rendered. The patient passed away in 2023. Molecular profiling identified the same TP53 mutation and two variants of uncertain significance in both specimens, suggesting the same primary. However, there was CCND3 amplification and absence of the TMPRSS2 :: ETV4 fusion in the 2022 specimen, which may be associated with squamous transformation and poor prognosis. A microarray might be beneficial to confirm loss of the TMPRSS2 :: ETV4 fusion. This case illustrates the rare occurrence of squamous transformation in prostate adenocarcinoma and the aggressive clinical course, and need for more therapy guidance and prognostic studies. It also highlights the importance of molecular profiling to provide insights into the pathogenesis of histologic transformation.

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