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Diagnostic Performance of Insulin Resistance Indices for Identifying Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease.

Background/objectives: Insulin resistance (IR) plays an important role in metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) pathogenesis. A modified triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index, including TyG-body mass index (TyG-BMI) and TyG-waist circumference (TyG-WC), has been introduced to represent IR. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic abilities of IR indices in MAFLD, in which fatty liver was diagnosed using computed tomography (CT). Subjects/methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and images of 852 adults aged ≥19 years who underwent abdominal CT. MAFLD was diagnosed based on the appearance of fatty liver on CT alongside at least one of the following three criteria: being overweight or obese, at least two metabolic risk abnormalities, and/or diabetes mellitus. IR indices were calculated by examining the following variables: homeostasis model assessment-IR, TyG index, TyG-BMI, TyG-WC, and visceral adiposity index. The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: For all patients, the area under the curve (AUC) of the TyG index, TyG-BMI, and TyG-WC were 0.834, 0.938, and 0.942, respectively. In men, the AUC of the TyG index, TyG-BMI, and TyG-WC were 0.812, 0.928, and 0.934, respectively. In women, the AUC of the TyG index was 0.841, and TyG-BMI and TyG-WC were 0.940 and 0.953, respectively. The AUC values tended to increase in the following order: TyG index < TyG-BMI < TyG-WC. Women showed a higher AUC than men in all items, and the TyG-WC of women showed the highest value with AUC 0.953 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.892-1.000, P  < 0.0001). The AUC of the TyG index was 0.858 (95% CI: 0.828-0.888, P  < 0.0001). Conclusions: In conclusion, TyG-WC is a powerful surrogate marker for identifying MAFLD in clinical settings.

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