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Neuro-ophthalmic challenges and multi-morbidity in vasculitis among the older adults.

INTRODUCTION: Vasculitides are a heterogeneous group of disorders producing inflammation of blood vessels (e.g. arteries or veins). All major vasculitides potentially have ophthalmological symptoms and signs including visual loss. Co-morbidity, multimorbidity, polypharmacy and geriatric syndromes all play important roles in patient outcomes for these rheumatic conditions in the elderly. This monograph reviews the NCBI PubMed database (Feb 2023) literature on the neuro-ophthalmic and geriatric considerations in vasculitis.

AREAS COVERED: Cogan Syndrome, Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis, Giant Cell Arteritis, Polyarteritis Nodosa, Takayasu Arteritis, Vasculitis epidemiology, neuro-ophthalmological symptoms.

EXPERT OPINION: Geriatric patient care for vasculitis with neuro-ophthalmological manifestations can be complicated by the interplay of multiple co-morbidities, polypharmacy, and specific geriatric syndromes. The valuation and treatment of vasculitis and the complications associated with the disease can negatively impact patient care. Advances in noninvasive imaging and updates in diagnostic criteria have enabled increased identification of patients at earlier stages with less severe disease burden. Novel therapeutic agents can be glucocorticoid sparing and might reduce the adverse effects of chronic steroid use. Holistic care models like the 5 M geriatric care model (mind, mobility, medications, multicomplexity, and matters most) allow patients' needs to be in the forefront with biopsychosocial aspects of a patient being addressed.

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