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The therapeutic effect of GAS6 in remyelination is dependent upon Tyro3.

Glia 2024 April 5
Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by demyelination, axonal damage and, for the majority of people, a decline in neurological function in the long-term. Remyelination could assist in the protection of axons and their functional recovery, but such therapies are not, as yet, available. The TAM (Tyro3, Axl, and MERTK) receptor ligand GAS6 potentiates myelination in vitro and promotes recovery in pre-clinical models of MS. However, it has remained unclear which TAM receptor is responsible for transducing this effect and whether post-translational modification of GAS6 is required. In this study, we show that the promotion of myelination requires post-translational modification of the GLA domain of GAS6 via vitamin K-dependent γ-carboxylation. We also confirmed that the intracerebroventricular provision of GAS6 for 2 weeks to demyelinated wild-type (WT) mice challenged with cuprizone increased the density of myelinated axons in the corpus callosum by over 2-fold compared with vehicle control. Conversely, the provision of GAS6 to Tyro3 KO mice did not significantly improve the density of myelinated axons. The improvement in remyelination following the provision of GAS6 to WT mice was also accompanied by an increased density of CC1+ve mature oligodendrocytes compared with vehicle control, whereas this improvement was not observed in the absence of Tyro3. This effect occurs independent of any influence on microglial activation. This work therefore establishes that the remyelinative activity of GAS6 is dependent on Tyro3 and includes potentiation of oligodendrocyte numbers.

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