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Prevalence and Predictors of Emergency Medical Service Use in Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

AIM: We aim to describe prevalence of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) use, investigate factors predictive of EMS use, and determine if EMS use predicts treatment delay and mortality in our ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) cohort.

METHOD: We prospectively collected data on 5,602 patients presenting with STEMI for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) transported to PCI-capable hospitals in Victoria, Australia, from 2013-2018 who were entered into the Victorian Cardiac Outcomes Registry (VCOR). We linked this dataset to the Ambulance Victoria and National Death Index (NDI) datasets. We excluded late presentation, thrombolysed, and in-hospital STEMI, as well as patients presenting with cardiogenic shock and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

RESULTS: In total, 74% of patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI used EMS. Older age, female gender, higher socioeconomic status, and a history of prior ischaemic heart disease were independent predictors of using EMS. EMS use was associated with shorter adjusted door-to-balloon (53 vs 72 minutes, p<0.001) and symptom-to-balloon (183 vs 212 minutes, p<0.001) times. Mode of transport was not predictive of 30-day or 12-month mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: EMS use in Victoria is relatively high compared with internationally reported data. EMS use reduces treatment delay. Predictors of EMS use in our cohort are consistent with those prevalent in prior literature. Understanding the patients who are less likely to use EMS might inform more targeted education campaigns in the future.

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