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Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Applications in Critically Ill Brain Injured Patients.

The utilization of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) is paving the way for significant strides in patient diagnosis, treatment, and prognostication in neurocritical care. These technologies offer the potential to unravel complex patterns within vast datasets ranging from vast clinical data and EEG (electroencephalogram) readings to advanced cerebral imaging facilitating a more nuanced understanding of patient conditions. Despite their promise, the implementation of AI and ML faces substantial hurdles. Historical biases within training data, the challenge of interpreting multifaceted data streams, and the "black box" nature of ML algorithms present barriers to widespread clinical adoption. Moreover, ethical considerations around data privacy and the need for transparent, explainable models remain paramount to ensure trust and efficacy in clinical decision-making.This article reflects on the emergence of AI and ML as integral tools in neurocritical care, discussing their roles from the perspective of both their scientific promise and the associated challenges. We underscore the importance of extensive validation in diverse clinical settings to ensure the generalizability of ML models, particularly considering their potential to inform critical medical decisions such as withdrawal of life-sustaining therapies. Advancement in computational capabilities is essential for implementing ML in clinical settings, allowing for real-time analysis and decision support at the point of care. As AI and ML are poised to become commonplace in clinical practice, it is incumbent upon health care professionals to understand and oversee these technologies, ensuring they adhere to the highest safety standards and contribute to the realization of personalized medicine. This engagement will be pivotal in integrating AI and ML into patient care, optimizing outcomes in neurocritical care through informed and data-driven decision-making.

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