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A case-based review on the neuroendoscopic management of intraventricular and subarachnoid basal neurocysticercosis.

OBJECTIVE: Extraparenchymal localization of neurocysticercosis (NCC) is rare in non-endemic areas. A case of mixed (intraventricular, IV, and subarachnoid basal, SAB) NCC was surgically treated using the neuroendoscope and a systematic review of the literature was performed with the aim to analyze the use of this instrument in the management of the extraparenchymal forms of the parasitic disease.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline and Embase databases were searched for studies where the neuroendoscope was used for the management of IV/SAB NCC cysts, either for the cerebrospinal fluid diversion or cyst removal. Cyst location, complete removal, cyst breakage during removal, intraoperative and postoperative complications, administration of antihelmintic therapy, outcome and follow-up period were extracted from the articles.

RESULTS: 281 patients were treated by means of the neuroendoscope. 254 patients who were described in retrospective cohort studies, came all from endemic areas, with no significant difference between sexes. Mean age at surgery was 30.7 years. Of all cysts reported in retrospective studies, 37.9% were located in the fourth ventricle. An attempt of cyst removal was described in the 84.6% of cases and an endoscopic third ventriculostomy was performed in another 76.4%. A small number of complications were reported intraoperatively (9.1%) obtaining, but a good recovery was achieved at follow-up. Only 17 ventriculoperitoneal shunts were placed after the first procedure, defining a low risk of postoperative hydrocephalus even in case of partial cyst removal.

CONCLUSION: Neuroendoscopic removal of an extraparenchymal NCC cyst is a safe procedure that should be preferred for lateral and third ventricle localization and, in a specialized centre, even for a localization in the fourth ventricle if feasible. It is also efficient because of the possibility of performing an internal CSF diversion concomitantly to cyst removal, avoiding the complication registered with VPS. The need for cysticidal treatment after surgery should be addressed in a prospective study.

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