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Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia type 4 due to a novel homozygous mutation in the VPS13D gene in a Saudi family.

Vacuolar protein sorting 13 homolog D (VPS13D) gene encodes a protein involved in trafficking of membrane proteins between the trans-Golgi network and the prevacuolar compartment. This study reports a novel homozygous mutation (c.12494T>C p.Ile4165Thr) in the VPS13D gene in a Saudi female diagnosed with autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia type 4 (SCAR4). The patient's clinical presentation, including progressive weakness, ataxia, and numbness, aligns with SCAR4 characteristics. The comprehensive evaluation, comprising neurological examination, brain MRI, and genetic testing, revealed distinctive features consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. The genetic mutation spectrum enrichment emphasizes the intricate interplay of genetic factors in SCAR4. Although no specific treatment exists, rehabilitation and supportive therapy remain central. The identified mutation contributes valuable insights for clinical management and genetic counseling, urging the ongoing collection of VPS13D gene mutation data to explore genotype-phenotype correlations in spinocerebellar ataxias. This study underscores the importance of multidisciplinary care and lays the foundation for future research directions in understanding and treating SCAR4.

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